In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of
myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp
investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a
number of basic elements.
These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.
Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are "An interdiction is addressed to the hero"; "The interdiction is violated"; "The false hero or villain is exposed"; and "The hero is married and ascends the throne."
[Le radici storiche dei racconti di fate]
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